On- and off-road diesel engines
Action 6.3: Control use of engine tuning equipment
There are today technologies available to increase engine effect by inter alia disabling the engine exhaust treatment system.
Secondary: Non-binding/diplomatic policy statements
For SCR-equipped engines (selective catalytic reduction - exhaust gas cleaning technology), this control is called an “AdBlue emulator”. This emulator makes it unnecessary to buy urea to the SCR, and effectively increases NOx emissions from the vehicle and risk increasing black carbon emissions. Although online ads for installing AdBlue emulators are available in the European countries the authors have visited, the use of AdBlue emulators are formally banned in most European countries (except during very low temperatures). They are, however, widely used in North America.
Chip engine tuning equipment basically just increases the effect of the engine, with or without disabling the engine exhaust system. But even if it doesn’t disable the engine exhaust system it might increase emissions of air pollutants, including fine particles, since exhaust systems often are dimensioned for a certain engine effect. With respect to enforcement, the earlier mentioned Spanish vehicle inspection initiative can be evaluated and re-tested, and research of roadside monitoring techniques would be needed. The Action Encourage countries to control and stop use of AdBlue emulators and chip engine tuning equipment is summarised in Table 36.